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new talk “Observing the Global IPv4 Internet: What IP Addresses Show” as an SKC Science and Technology Webinar

John Heidemann gave the talk “Observing the Global IPv4 Internet: What IP Addresses Show” at the SKC Science and Technology Webinar, hosted by Deepankar Medhi (U. Missouri-Kansas City and NSF) on June 18, 2021.  A video of the talk is on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4A_gFXi2WeY. Slides are available at https://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Heidemann21a.pdf.

From the abstract:Covid and non-Covid network changes in India; part of a talk about measuring the IPv4 Internet.

Since 2014 the ANT lab at USC has been observing the visible IPv4 Internet (currently 5 million networks measured every 11 minutes) to detect network outages. This talk explores how we use this large-scale, active measurement to estimate Internet reliability and understand the effects of real-world events such as hurricanes. We have recently developed new algorithms to identify Covid-19-related Work-from-Home and other Internet shutdowns in this data. Our Internet outage work is joint work of John Heidemann, Lin Quan, Yuri Pradkin, Guillermo Baltra, Xiao Song, and Asma Enayet with contributions from Ryan Bogutz, Dominik Staros, Abdulla Alwabel, and Aqib Nisar.

This project is joint work of a number of people listed in the abstract above, and is supported by NSF 2028279 (MINCEQ) and CNS-2007106 (EIEIO). All data from this paper is available at no cost to researchers.

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Presentations

new talk “A First Look at Measuring the Internet during Novel Coronavirus to Evaluate Quarantine (MINCEQ)” at Digital Technologies for COVID-19 Webinar Series

John Heidemann gave the talk “A First Look at Measuring the Internet during Novel Coronavirus to Evaluate Quarantine (MINCEQ)” at Digital Technologies for COVID-19 Webinar Series, hosted by Craig Knoblock and Bhaskar Krishnamachari of USC Viterbi School of Engineering on May 29, 2020. Internet Outages: Reliablity and Security” at the University of Oregon Cybersecurity Day in Eugene, Oregon on April 23, 2018.  A video of the talk is on YoutTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tduZ1Y_FX0s. Slides are available at https://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Heidemann20a.pdf.

From the abstract:

Measuring the Internet during Novel Coronavirus to Evaluate Quarantine (RAPID-MINCEQ) is a project to measure changes in Internet use during the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020.

Today social distancing and work-from-home/study-from-home are the best tools we have to limit COVID’s spread. But implementation of these policies varies in the US and around the global, and we would like to evaluate participation in these policies.
This project plans to develop two complementary methods of assessing Internet use by measuring address activity and how it changes relative to historical trends. Changes in the Internet can reflect work-from-home behavior. Although we cannot see all IP addresses (many are hidden behind firewalls or home routers), early work shows changes at USC and ISI.


This project is support by an NSF RAPID grant for COVID-19 and just began in May 2020, so this talk will discuss directions we plan to explore.

This project is joint work of Guillermo Baltra, Asma Enayet, John Heidemann, Yuri Pradkin, and Xiao Song and is supported by NSF/CISE as award NSF-2028279.

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Announcements Projects

new project “Measuring the Internet during Novel Coronavirus to Evaluate Quarantine” (MINCEQ)

We are happy to announce a new project “Measuring the Internet during Novel Coronavirus to Evaluate Quarantine” (MINCEQ).

Measuring the Internet during Novel Coronavirus to Evaluate Quarantine (RAPID-MINCEQ) is a project to measure changes in Internet use during the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020. As the world grapples with COVID-19, work-from-home and study-from-home are widely employed. Implementation of these policies varies across the U.S. and globally due to local circumstances. A common consequence is a huge shift in Internet use, with schools and workplaces emptying and home Internet use increasing. The goal of this project is to observe this shift, globally, through changes in Internet address usage, allowing observation of early reactions to COVID and, one hopes, a future shift back.

This project plans to develop two complementary methods of assessing Internet use by measuring address activity and how it changes relative to historical trends. The project will directly measure Internet address use globally based on continuous, ongoing measurements of more than 4 million IPv4 networks. The project will also directly measure Internet address use in network traffic at a regional Internet exchange point where multiple Internet providers interconnect. The first approach provides a global picture, while the second provides a more detailed but regional picture; together they will help evaluate measurement accuracy.

The project website is at https://ant.isi.edu/minceq/index.html. The PI is John Heidemann. This work is supported by NSF as a RAPID award in response to COVID-19, award NSF-2028279.

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Announcements

reblogging: the diurnal Internet and DNS backscatter

We are happy to share that two of our older topics have appeared more recently in other venues.

Our animations of the diurnal Internet, originally seen in our 2014 ACM IMC paper and our blog posts, was noticed by Gerald Smith who used it to start a discussion with seventh-grade classes in Mahe, India and (I think) Indiana, USA as part of his Fullbright work. It’s great to see research work that useful to middle-schoolers!

Kensuke Fukuda recently posted about our work on identifying IPv6 scanning with DNS backscatter at the APNIC blog. This work was originally published at the 2018 ACM IMC and posted in our blog. It’s great to see that work get out to a new audience.

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Presentations

new talk “Internet Outages: Reliablity and Security” from U. of Oregon Cybersecurity Day 2018

John Heidemann gave the talk “Internet Outages: Reliablity and Security” at the University of Oregon Cybersecurity Day in Eugene, Oregon on April 23, 2018.  Slides are available at https://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Heidemann18e.pdf.

Network outages as a security problem.

From the abstract:

The Internet is central to our lives, but we know astoundingly little about it. Even though many businesses and individuals depend on it, how reliable is the Internet? Do policies and practices make it better in some places than others?

Since 2006, we have been studying the public face of the Internet to answer these questions. We take regular censuses, probing the entire IPv4 Internet address space. For more than two years we have been observing Internet reliability through active probing with Trinocular outage detection, revealing the effects of the Internet due to natural disasters like Hurricanes from Sandy to Harvey and Maria, configuration errors that sometimes affect millions of customers, and political events where governments have intervened in Internet operation. This talk will describe how it is possible to observe Internet outages today and what they are beginning to say about the Internet and about the physical world.

This talk builds on research over the last decade in IPv4 censuses and outage detection and includes the work of many of my collaborators.

Data from this talk is all available; see links on the last slide.

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Announcements Projects

new project LACANIC

We are happy to announce a new project, LACANIC, the Los Angeles/Colorado Application and Network Information Community.

The LACANIC project’s goal is to develop datasets to improve Internet security and readability. We distribute these datasets through the DHS IMPACT program.

As part of this work we:

  • provide regular data collection to collect long-term, longitudinal data
  • curate datasets for special events
  • build websites and portals to help make data accessible to casual users
  • develop new measurement approaches

We provide several types of datasets:

  • anonymized packet headers and network flow data, often to document events like distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks and regular traffic
  • Internet censuses and surveys for IPv4 to document address usage
  • Internet hitlists and histories, derived from IPv4 censuses, to support other topology studies
  • application data, like DNS and Internet-of-Things mapping, to document regular traffic and DDoS events
  • and we are developing other datasets

LACANIC allows us to continue some of the data collection we were doing as part of the LACREND project, as well as develop new methods and ways of sharing the data.

LACANIC is a joint effort of the ANT Lab involving USC/ISI (PI: John Heidemann) and Colorado State University (PI: Christos Papadopoulos).

We thank DHS’s Cyber Security Division for their continued support!

 

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Presentations

new talk “Digging in to Ground Truth in Network Measurements” at the TMA PhD School 2017

John Heidemann gave the talk “Digging in to Ground Truth in Network Measurements” at the TMA PhD School 2017 in Dublin, Ireland on June 19, 2017.  Slides are available at https://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Heidemann17c.pdf.
From the abstract:

New network measurements are great–you can learn about the whole world! But new network measurements are horrible–are you sure you learn about the world, and not about bugs in your code or approach? New scientific approaches must be tested and ultimately calibrated against ground truth. Yet ground truth about the Internet can be quite difficult—often network operators themselves do not know all the details of their network. This talk will explore the role of ground truth in network measurement: getting it when you can, alternatives when it’s imperfect, and what we learn when none is available.

 

This talk builds on research over the last decade with many people, and the slides include some discussion from the TMA PhD school audience.

Travel to the TMA PhD school was supported by ACM, ISI, and the DHS Retro-Future Bridge and Outages project.

Update 2017-07-05: The TMA folks have posted video of this “Ground Truth” talk to YouTube if you want to relive the glory of a warm afternoon in Dublin.

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Papers Publications

new conference paper “Do You See Me Now? Sparsity in Passive Observations of Address Liveness” in TMA 2017

The paper “Do You See Me Now? Sparsity in Passive Observations of Address Liveness” will appear in the 2017 Conference on Network Traffic Measurement and Analyais (TMA) July 21-23, 2017 in Dublin, Ireland.   The datasets from the paper that we can make public will be at https://ant.isi.edu/datasets/sparsity/.

Visibility of addresses and blocks from possible /24 virtual monitors (Figure 2 from [Mirkovic17a])
From the abstract of the paper:

Accurate information about address and block usage in the Internet has many applications in planning address allocation, topology studies, and simulations. Prior studies used active probing, sometimes augmented with passive observation, to study macroscopic phenomena, such as the overall usage of the IPv4 address space. This paper instead studies the completeness of passive sources: how well they can observe microscopic phenomena such as address usage within a given network. We define sparsity as the limitation of a given monitor to see a target, and we quantify the effects of interest, temporal, and coverage sparsity. To study sparsity, we introduce inverted analysis, a novel approach that uses complete passive observations of a few end networks (three campus networks in our case) to infer what of these networks would be seen by millions of virtual monitors near their traffic’s destinations. Unsurprisingly, we find that monitors near popular content see many more targets and that visibility is strongly influenced by bipartite traffic between clients and servers. We are the first to quantify these effects and show their implications for the study of Internet liveness from passive observations. We find that visibility is heavy-tailed, with only 0.5% monitors seeing more than 10\% of our targets’ addresses, and is most affected by interest sparsity over temporal and coverage sparsity. Visibility is also strongly bipartite. Monitors of a different class than a target (e.g., a server monitor observing a client target) outperform monitors of the same class as a target in 82-99% of cases in our datasets. Finally, we find that adding active probing to passive observations greatly improves visibility of both server and client target addresses, but is not critical for visibility of target blocks. Our findings are valuable to understand limitations of existing measurement studies, and to develop methods to maximize microscopic completeness in future studies.

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Announcements Data Internet

ANT IPv4 census appears in Library of Congress Blog on Innovative Mapping

John Hessler, a member of the US Library of Congress’ Geography and Map Division wrote a nice blog post about our IPv4 Internet maps: “Computing Space V: Mapping the Web or Pinging your Way to Infinity“.  Check out his take on our IPv4 data!

You too can browse the IPv4 Internet at our website.  Or for detailed analysis, get the data from IMPACT or us.

Thanks to the DHS IMPACT program for supporting collection of this data.

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Publications Technical Report

new technical report “Do You See Me Now? Sparsity in Passive Observations of Address Liveness (extended)”

We have released a new technical report “Do You See Me Now? Sparsity in Passive Observations of Address Liveness (extended)”, ISI-TR-2016-710, available at http://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Mirkovic16a.pdf

How many USC addresses are visible from virtual remote monitors, based on the monitor's overall visibility.
How many USC addresses are visible from virtual remote monitors, based on the monitor’s overall visibility.

From the abstract:

Full allocation of IPv4 addresses has prompted interest in measuring address liveness, first with active probing, and recently with the addition of passive observation. While prior work has shown dramatic increases in coverage, this paper explores what factors affect contributions of passive observers to visibility. While all passive monitors are sparse, seeing only a part of the Internet, we seek to understand how different types of sparsity impact observation quality: the interests of external hosts and the hosts within the observed network, the temporal limitations on the observation duration, and coverage challenges to observe all traffic for a given target or a given vantage point. We study sparsity with inverted analysis, a new approach where we use passive monitors at four sites to infer what monitors would see at all sites exchanging traffic with those four. We show that visibility provided by monitors is heavy-tailed—interest sparsity means popular monitors see a great deal, while 99% see very little. We find that traffic is bipartite, with visibility much stronger between client-networks and server-networks than within each group. Finally, we find that popular monitors are robust to temporal and coverage sparsity, but they greatly reduce power of monitors that start with low visibility.

This technical report is joint work of  Jelena Mirkovic, Genevieve Bartlett, John Heidemann, Hao Shi, and Xiyue Deng, all of USC/ISI.