Categories
Presentations

new animation: a sample of U.S. networks, before and after Hurricane Sandy

In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the U.S. East Coast causing widespread power outages. We were able to see the effects of Hurricane Sandy by analyzing active probing of the Internet. We first reported this work in a technical report and then with more refined analysis in a peer-reviewed paper.

Network outages for a sample of U.s. East Coast networks on the day after Hurricane Sandy made landfall.
Network outages for a sample of U.s. East Coast networks on the day after Hurricane Sandy made landfall.

We recently animated our data showing Hurricane Sandy landfall.

These 4 days before landfall and 7 after show some intersting results: On the day of landfall we see about three-times the number of outages relative to “typical” U.S. networks. Finally, we see it takes about four days to recover back to typical conditions.

This analysis uses dataset usc-lander / internet_address_survey_reprobing_it50j, available for research use from PREDICT, or by request from us if PREDICT access is not possible.

This animation was first shown at the Dec. 2014 DHS Cyber Security Division R&D Showcase and Technical Workshop as part of the talk “Towards Understanding Internet Reliability” given by John Heidemann. This work was supported by DHS, most recently through the LACREND project.

Categories
Presentations

new animation: eight years of Internet IPv4 Censuses

We’ve been taking Internet IPv4 censuses regularly since 2006.  In each census, we probe the entire allocated IPv4 address space.  You may browse 8 years of data at our IPv4 address browser.

A still image from our animation of 8 years of IPv4 censuses.
A still image from our animation of 8 years of IPv4 censuses.

We recently put together an animation showing 8 years of IPv4 censuses, from 2006 through 2014.

These eight years show some interesting events, from an early “open” Internet in 2006, to full allocation of IPv4 by ICANN in 2011, to higher utilization in 2014.

All data shown here can be browsed at our website.
Data is available for research use from PREDICT or by request from us if PREDICT access is not possible.

This animation was first shown at the Dec. 2014 DHS Cyber Security Division R&D Showcase and Technical Workshop as part of the talk “Towards Understanding Internet Reliability” given by John Heidemann.  This work was supported by DHS, most recently through the LACREND project.

Categories
Papers Publications

new workshop paper “Measuring DANE TLSA Deployment” in TMA 2015

The paper “Measuring DANE TLSA Deployment” will appear at the Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Workshop in April 2015 in Barcelona, Spain (available at http://www.isi.edu/~liangzhu/papers/dane_tlsa.pdf).

From the abstract:

The DANE (DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities) framework uses DNSSEC to provide a source of trust, and with TLSA it can serve as a root of trust for TLS certificates. This serves to complement traditional certificate authentication methods, which is important given the risks inherent in trusting hundreds of organizations—risks already demonstrated with multiple compromises. The TLSA protocol was published in 2012, and this paper presents the first systematic study of its deployment. We studied TLSA usage, developing a tool that actively probes all signed zones in .com and .net for TLSA records. We find the TLSA use is early: in our latest measurement, of the 485k signed zones, we find only 997 TLSA names. We characterize how it is being used so far, and find that around 7–13% of TLSA records are invalid. We find 33% of TLSA responses are larger than 1500 Bytes and will very likely be fragmented.

The work in the paper is by Liang Zhu (USC/ISI), Duane Wessels and Allison Mankin (both of Verisign Labs), and John Heidemann (USC/ISI).

Categories
Software releases

Digit-1.1 release

Digit-1.1 has been released  (available at https://ant.isi.edu/software/tdns/index.htmlScreenshot from 2014-11-08 16:17:45).  Digit is a DNS client side tool that can perform DNS queries via different protocols such as UDP, TCP, TLS. This tool is primarily designed to evaluate the client side latency of using DNS over TCP/TLS, as described in the technical report “T-DNS: Connection-Oriented DNS to Improve Privacy and Security” (http://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Zhu14b/index.html).

A README in the package has detailed instructions about how to use this software.

Categories
Presentations

new talk “Internet Populations (Good and Bad): Measurement, Estimation, and Correlation” at the ICERM Workshop on Cybersecurity

John Heidemann gave the talk “Internet Populations (Good and Bad): Measurement, Estimation, and Correlation” at the ICERM Workshop on Cybersecurity at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island on October 22, 2014. Slides are available at http://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Heidemann14e/.

Can we improve the mathematical tools we use to measure and understand the Internet?
Can we improve the mathematical tools we use to measure and understand the Internet?

From the abstract:

Our research studies the Internet’s public face. Since 2006 we have been taking censuses of the Internet address space (pinging all IPv4 addresses) every 3 months. Since 2012 we have studied network outages and events like Hurricane Sandy, using probes of much of the Internet every 11 minutes. Most recently we have evaluated the diurnal Internet, finding countries where most people turn off their computers at night. Finally, we have looked at network reputation, identifying how spam generation correlates with network location, and others have studies multiple measurements of “network reputation”.

A common theme across this work is one must estimate characteristics of the edge of the Internet in spite of noisy measurements and a underlying changes. One also need to compare and correlate these imperfect measurements with other factors (from GDP to telecommunications policies).

How do these applications relate to the mathematics of census taking and measurement, estimation, and correlation? Are there tools we should be using that we aren’t? Do the properties of the Internet suggest new approaches (for example where rapid full enumeration is possible)? Does correlation and estimates of network “badness” help us improve cybersecurity by treating different parts of the network differently?

Categories
Presentations

new animation “Watching the Internet Sleep”

Does the Internet sleep? Yes, and we have the video!

We have recently put together a video showing 35 days of Internet address usage as observed from Trinocular, our outage detection system.

The Internet sleeps: address use in South America is low (blue) in the early morning, while India is high (red) in afternoon.
The Internet sleeps: address use in South America is low (blue) in the early morning, while India is high (red) in afternoon.

The Internet sleeps: address use in South America is low (blue) in the early morning, while India is high (red) in afternoon.  When we look at address usage over time, we see that some parts of the globe have daily swings of +/-10% to 20% in the number of active addresses. In China, India, eastern Europe and much of South America, the Internet sleeps.

Understanding when the Internet sleeps is important to understand how different country’s network policies affect use, it is part of outage detection, and it is a piece of improving our long-term goal of understanding exactly how big the Internet is.

See http://www.isi.edu/ant/diurnal/ for the video, or read our technical paper “When the Internet Sleeps: Correlating Diurnal Networks With External Factors” by Quan, Heidemann, and Pradkin, to appear at ACM IMC, Nov. 2014.

Datasets (listed here) used in generating this video are available.

This work is partly supported by DHS S&T, Cyber Security division, agreement FA8750-12-2-0344 (under AFRL) and N66001-13-C-3001 (under SPAWAR).  The views contained
herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of DHS or the U.S. Government.  This work was classified by USC’s IRB as non-human subjects research (IIR00001648).

Categories
Announcements Collaborations Data Internet Outages

welcoming Greece to the ANT Internet Census

We’re happy to welcome Greece to our browsable Internet map at http://www.isi.edu/ant/address/browse/ !  Of course Greece has always been in our Internet censuses, but George Xylomenos and George Polyzos of the Athens University of Economics and Business (their lab) helped set up a new observation site.  Greece now provides a new vantage point for Internet censuses.

The differences in the census are small, as one would hope, since it’s a global Internet.  However, when we look at latency (the time it takes for an IP address to reply to our requests), Greece gives us a European view.

Compare the lower-left corner of the Internet, since that is European IPv4 address space:

it61g RTTs
Round-trip times from our Greek vantage point (in AUEB.gr) to the world. Observe that European IP addresses in the lower left corner are nearby (light colored).
it61w RTTs
Round-trip times from our Los Angeles-based vantage point (at isi.edu) to the world. Observe that European IP addresses in the lower left corner are distant (darker gray).

In addition to big thanks to George Xylomenos and George Polyzos of AUEB (σας ευχαριστώ!) and AUEB for institutional funding for this work.  We also thank Christos Papadopoulos (Colorado State) for helping with many details, and Colin Perkins (U. Glasgow) for discussions about potential European hosts.

Data from our Greece census is available to researchers at no cost on the same terms as our existing census data.  See our datasets page for details. Greek data starts with it61 as of 2014-08-29.

Categories
Presentations

new talk “Measuring DANE TLSA Deployment” given at DNS-OARC

Liang Zhu gave the talk “Measuring DANE TLSA Deployment”, given at the Fall DNS-OARC meeting in Los Angeles, California on Oct 12, 2014.  Slides are available: http://www.isi.edu/~liangzhu/presentation/dns-oarc/dane_tlsa_survey.pdf

From the abstract:

The DANE (DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities) framework uses DNSSEC to provide a source of trust, and with TLSA it can serve as a root of trust for TLS certificates. This alternative to traditional certificate authorities is important given the risks inherent in trusting hundreds of organizations—risks already demonstrated with multiple compromises. The TLSA protocol was published in 2012, and this talk presents the first systematic study of its deployment. We studied TLSA usage, developing a tool that actively probes all signed zones in .com and .net for TLSA records. We find the TLSA use is early: in our latest measurement, of the 461k signed zones, we find only 701 TLSA names. We characterize how it is being used so far, and find that around 7–12% of TLSA records are invalid. We find 31% of TLSA responses are larger than 1500 Bytes and get IP fragmented.

The work in the talk is by Liang Zhu (USC/ISI), Duane Wessels and Allison Mankin (both of Verisign), and John Heidemann (USC/ISI).

Categories
Papers Publications

new conference paper “When the Internet Sleeps: Correlating Diurnal Networks With External Factors” in IMC 2014

The paper “When the Internet Sleeps: Correlating Diurnal Networks With External Factors” will appear at ACM Internet Measurements Conference 2014 in Vancouver, Canada (available at http://www.isi.edu/~johnh/PAPERS/Quan14c/ with cite and pdf, or direct pdf).

Predicting longitude from observed diurnal phase ([Quan14c], figure 14c)
Predicting longitude from observed diurnal phase for 287k geolocatable, diurnal blocks ([Quan14c], figure 14c)
From the abstract:

As the Internet matures, policy questions loom larger in its operation. When should an ISP, city, or government invest in infrastructure? How do their policies affect use? In this work, we develop a new approach to evaluate how policies, economic conditions and technology correlates with Internet use around the world. First, we develop an adaptive and accurate approach to estimate block availability, the fraction of active IP addresses in each /24 block over short timescales (every 11 minutes). Our estimator provides a new lens to interpret data taken from existing long-term outage measurements, thus requiring no additional traffic. (If new collection was required, it would be lightweight, since on average, outage detection requires less than 20 probes per hour per /24 block; less than 1% of background radiation.) Second, we show that spectral analysis of this measure can identify diurnal usage: blocks where addresses are regularly used during part of the day and idle in other times. Finally, we analyze data for the entire responsive Internet (3.7M /24 blocks) over 35 days. These global observations show when and where the Internet sleeps—networks are mostly always-on in the US and Western Europe, and diurnal in much of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) testing shows that diurnal networks correlate negatively with country GDP and electrical consumption, quantifying that national policies and economics relate to networks.

Citation: Lin Quan, John Heidemann, and Yuri Pradkin. When the Internet Sleeps: Correlating Diurnal Networks With External Factors. In Proceedings of the ACM Internet Measurement Conference, p. to appear. Vancouver, BC, Canada, ACM. November, 2014.

All data in this paper is available to researchers at no cost, and source code to our analysis tools is available on request; see our diurnal datasets webpage.

This work is partly supported by DHS S&T, Cyber Security division, agreement FA8750-12-2-0344 (under AFRL) and N66001-13-C-3001 (under SPAWAR).  The views contained
herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of DHS or the U.S. Government.  This work was classified by USC’s IRB as non-human subjects research (IIR00001648).

Categories
Publications Technical Report

new technical report “Web-scale Content Reuse Detection (extended)”

We released a new technical report “Web-scale Content Reuse Detection (extended)”, ISI-TR-2014-692, available at http://www.isi.edu/publications/trpublic/files/tr-692.pdf.

From the abstract:

Discovering the amount of chunk-level duplication in Geocities (2008/2009, 97M chunks, Fig. 11).
Discovering the amount of chunk-level duplication in Geocities (2008/2009, 97M chunks, Fig. 11).

With the vast amount of accessible, online content, it is not surprising that unscrupulous entities “borrow” from the web to provide filler for advertisements, link farms, and spam and make a quick profit. Our insight is that cryptographic hashing and fingerprinting can efficiently identify content reuse for web-size corpora. We develop two related algorithms, one to automatically discover previously unknown duplicate content in the web, and the second to detect copies of discovered or manually identified content in the web. Our detection can also bad neighborhoods, clusters of pages where copied content is frequent. We verify our approach with controlled experiments with two large datasets: a Common Crawl subset the web, and a copy of Geocities, an older set of user-provided web content. We then demonstrate that we can discover otherwise unknown examples of duplication for spam, and detect both discovered and expert-identified content in these large datasets. Utilizing an original copy of Wikipedia as identified content, we find 40 sites that reuse this content, 86% for commercial benefit.